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Geography

General Information


Serbia is a landlocked country, located in the Balkans and the Pannonian Plain. It shares borders with Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro and Romania.

Access to the Adriatic sea is available through Montenegro, and the Danube River provides shipping access to inland Europe and the Black Sea.

 

Serbia covers a total of 88,361 km². Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km (Albania 115 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Montenegro 203 km and Romania 476 km). It has 6,167 registered settlements, 207 urban and 5960 others (rural).Arable land covers 19,194 km², and woods cover 19,499 km² of the territory of Serbia. 

 

Terrain

 

Serbia's terrain ranges from the rich, fertile plains of the northern Vojvodina region, the limestone ranges and basins in the east, and in the southeast ancient mountains and hills. The north is dominated by the Danube River. A tributary, the Morava River flows through the more mountainous southern regions.

In Central Serbia the terrain consists chiefly of hills, low and medium-high mountains, interspersed with numerous rivers and creeks. The main communication and development line stretches southeast of Belgrade, towards Nis and Skopje (in Republic of Macedonia), along the valley of Great and South Morava river. Most major cities are located on or around that line, as well as the main railroad and highway. On the East of it, the terrain quickly rises to limestone ranges of Stara Planina and Serbian Carpathians, relatively sparsely populated. On the West, height of mountains slowly rises towards southwest, but they do not form real ridges. The highest mountains of that area are Zlatibor and Kopaonik.

 

Hydrology


Practically the entire territory (92%) of Serbia belongs to the Danube (Black Sea) drainage basin, an area in Kosovo (5%) belongs to the Adriatic drainage basin, chiefly through the White Drin river, and the rest (3%) in Kosovo and southern Serbia belongs to Aegean basin, chiefly via the Vardar river.

 

Apart from the Danube, which flows 588 km through Serbia or as a border river (with Croatia on its northwestern flow and Romania on southeast), the chief rivers are its tributaries Sava, Tisa , Drina and Morava. Their tributaries form a dense network of smaller rivers and creeks, covering most of the country.

Due to the configuration of the terrain, natural lakes are sparse and small; most of them are located in Vojvodina, like the glacial lake Palic or numerous oxbow lakes along river flows. However, there are numerous artificial lakes, mostly due to hydroelectric dams, the biggest being Derdap on the Danube, Perucac on the Drina and Vlasina Lake.

Serbia also has a huge geothermal potential, which is only partially and sporadically utilized. The use of geothermal waters is chiefly for balneological purposes: there are around 60 spas, which are seen as a great chance for the improvement of the tourism sector.

 

Climate


The climate of Serbia is moderate continental with a diversity on local level, caused by geographic location, land relief, terrain exposition, presence of river and lake systems, vegetation, urbanization etc. Proximity of the mountain ranges of Alps, Carpathians, Rhodopes, as well as Adriatic Sea and Pannonian plain affect the climate. Location of river ravines and plains in the northern area of the country enable occasional deep southward protrusion of polar air masses on winters, while hot Saharan air often intrudes over the Mediterranean Sea on summers.

 

Nature preservation areas and parks

 

Serbia has four national parks and many national nature reserves encompassing 5% of the territory.

 

National parks:

Fruska Gora (250 km²)

Kopaonik  (120 km²)

Tara (220 km²)

Derdap (Iron Gate) (640 km²)

 

Nature parks:

 

Prokletije (1000 km²)

Gornje Podunavlje (100 km²)

Stara Planina (1420 km²)

Golija (750 km²)

Kucajske planine (1150 km²)

 

Special nature reservations:

 

Deliblato Sands (300 km²)

Ludas Lake (5.93 km²)

Obedska Pond (175.01 km²)

Stari Begej – Carska Bara (17.67 km²)

 

Nature monuments:

 

Davolja Varos (0.64 km²)